The Gymnosperm Database


Range of Agathis endertii (de Laubenfels 1988). Adapted from a map by


Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional

Conservation status 2010: protocol 2.3, needs updating

Agathis endertii

Meijer Drees 1940

Common names

Bulok [Iban] (de Laubenfels 1988).

Taxonomic notes


Tree. Bark purplish grey-brown. Juvenile leaves large, oval, acute. Adult leaves oval, narrowing at the base to a short petiole to 5 mm long, narrowing at the other end to a bluntly acute apex, 5-9 cm long by 2-3 cm wide, not glaucous below, resin canals isolated. Male cones cylindrical, 3-4 cm long by 2-3 cm wide, rounded at the apex, narrowing to a sessile base; microsporophylls with a semicircular margin. Young female cone oval, dominated by spreading or reflexed lips of individual scales. Mature female cone oval, to 6 cm long; scales roughly triangular but well rounded at the upper corners, with a prominent triangular-rounded lip protruding from the upper margin. Seed obovoid, 10 mm long by 8 mm wide (Silba 1986).

Distribution and Ecology

Borneo (Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia): "[i]n more or less isolated populations from near sea-level to 1440 m, often associated with sandstone kerangas" (de Laubenfels 1988).

This species is listed as "LR/nt" (lower risk, near threatened) by the WCMC, which adds: "Although the species is widespread, it occurs in isolated populations in moist lowland forest associated with sandstone kerangas. The timber is heavily exploited."

Big tree

Commonly 64 m tall, 1 m in girth (Silba 1986).







Meijer-Drees. 1940. The genus Agathis in Malaysia. Bull. Bot. Gds. Buitenzorg, Series III, XVI, 455-474.

See also

Last Modified 2017-12-29