The Gymnosperm Database


Distribution map (redrawn from de Laubenfels 1972).


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Conservation status 2010: protocol 3.1

Araucaria biramulata

Buchholz 1949

Common names

Biramule araucaria (Silba 1986).

Taxonomic notes


A molecular analysis places Araucaria biramulata into the clade of large-leaved species of New Caledonia, along with A. humboldtensis, A. laubenfelsii, A. montana, A. muelleri, and A. rulei (Gaudeul et al. 2012).


"A columnar tree to 30 m. tall, with numerous, spreading branches. Bark gray or brown, exfoliating in thin strips. Branches multi-stemmed at the tips, seasonal branches 8-13 mm in diameter. Juvenile foliage needle-like, non-flattened, curved inwards, apex sharply acute. Adult leaves spreading, ovate, scalelike, with a prominent midrib, 7-9 mm. long by 5-6 mm. wide, keeled, acuminate, stomata on both surfaces, apex incurved. Male cone cylindrical, 6-7 cm. long by l.5-2 cm. wide, scales acuminate, pollen sacs 7-8, microsporophylls triangular. Female cone 9-10 cm. long by 8-9 cm. wide; bracts erect, to 8 mm. long. Seeds to 3 cm. long, with a long triangular nut and with ovate wings. Germination epigeal" (Silba 1986).

Distribution and Ecology

W New Caledonia: type from Mois de Mai, 300-1050 m (Silba 1986).

The IUCN reports that this species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild due to a limited and severely fragmented distribution due to projected continuing declines in extent of habitat, number of subpopulations, and number of mature individuals. The species now contains no more than 10,000 mature individuals, with no more than 1,000 in any subpopulation.

Big tree







Gaudeul, M., G. Rouhan, M.F. Gardner, and P.M. Hollingsworth. 2012. AFLP markers provide insights into the evolutionary relationships and diversification of New Caledonian Araucaria species (Araucariaceae). American Journal of Botany 99(1):68-81.

See also

Association Endemia, a site devoted to New Caledonian species. Has excellent photos, a range map, and other information. In French.

The species account at Threatened Conifers of the World.

Last Modified 2017-12-29