Gymnosperm Database
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Tree at the Brisbane Botanical Garden, Queensland [C.J. Earle, 1996.03.31].


Foliage on the above tree [C.J. Earle, 1996.03.31].


Bark of a tree growing at 700 m elevation on Mt Panie in New Caledonia [Phill Parsons].


Distribution map (redrawn from de Laubenfels 1972).


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Conservation status 2010: protocol 3.1

Araucaria montana

Brong. et Griseb. 1871

Common names

Mountain araucaria (Silba 1986).

Taxonomic notes

Synonym: Eutassa montana (Brongn. et Gris) de Laub. 2009. A molecular analysis places Araucaria montana into the clade of large-leaved species of New Caledonia, along with A. biramulata, A. humboldtensis, A. laubenfelsii, A. muelleri, and A. rulei (Gaudeul et al. 2012).


"A columnar tree 10-40 m. tall. Branches numerous and spreading, 15-22 mm. in diameter. Bark dark brown or gray, exfoliating in thin strips or scaly. Juvenile leaves scale-like, non-flattened, ovate, lanceolate, 10 mm. long by 4-5 mm. wide, apex incurved. Adult leaves scale-like, bluntly acute to obtuse, ovate, 11-14 mm. long by 7-8 mm. wide, loosely imbricate, apex incurved, midrib prominent. Male cone cylindrical, 8-13.5 cm. long by 20-28 mm. wide, scales triangular, pollen sacs 12, microsporophylls triangular. Female cone 8-9 cm. long by 6-8 cm. wide; bracts short and acuminate, 5-10 mm. long. Seed to 3.2 cm. long, with oval wings and an elongated nut. Germination epigeal" (Silba 1986).

Distribution and Ecology

N New Caledonia, type near Canala, 200-1400 m (Silba 1986). Rigg (2005) describes how this species occurs on ultramafic soils in both maquis and as an emergent in upland rainforest. In both habitats it evidently regenerates more or less continuously in response to small-scale disturbances including fire (in maquis) and blowdown (in maquis and rainforest).

The IUCN reports that the population is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild due to a limited and severely fragmented distribution that is forecast to experience continued decline in extent of habitat, number of subpopulations, and number of mature individuals.

Big tree







Gaudeul, M., G. Rouhan, M.F. Gardner, and P.M. Hollingsworth. 2012. AFLP markers provide insights into the evolutionary relationships and diversification of New Caledonian Araucaria species (Araucariaceae). American Journal of Botany 99(1):68-81.

Rigg, L.S. 2005. Disturbance processes and spatial patterns of two emergent conifers in New Caledonia. Austral Ecology 30(4):363-373.

See also

Association Endemia, a site devoted to New Caledonian species. Has excellent photos, a range map, and other information. In French.

Last Modified 2017-05-11