The Gymnosperm Database


Ali and Qaiser (1987) provide a drawing.


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Conservation status

Ephedra major subsp. procera

Fischer et C.A. Meyer

Common names

Taxonomic notes

Syn. E. procera Fisch. et. C.A. Mey. 1844; E. nebrodensis Tineo var. procera (Fisch. et Mey.) Stapf. (Vidakovic 1991). Type location in the Caucasus (Ali and Qaiser 1987).


Shrubs up to 2 m tall. Branches and branchlets slender, striate, smooth. Leaves up to 3 mm long, leathery. Male cones sessile, subglobose, 4-5 mm long; anthers 6-8. Female cones erect, solitary, petiolated, with 2-3 pairs of bracts, the inner connate below the middle. Tubillus c. 2.5 mm long, straight. Berry red or yellow, ovoid to subglobose, 5-7 mm long; seeds ovate to oblong, c. 5 mm long. Heartwood red-brown (Ali and Qaiser 1987, Vidakovic 1991).

Distribution and Ecology

Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Armenia, Kurdistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan (Baluchistan), Himalaya, Greece. In Greece, in the southern mountains (Ali and Qaiser 1987, Vidakovic 1991).

Big tree



"The plant is medicinal and is used for the extraction of Ephedrine" (Ali and Qaiser 1987).




Ali, S.I. and M. Qaiser (eds.). 1987. Flora of Pakistan.

See also

Last Modified 2017-12-29