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Conservation status

Ephedra torreyana

Watson 1879

Common names

Mormon tea, Brigham tea, Mexican tea, jointfir, cañutillo, cañatilla, tepopote (Elmore and Janish 1976).

Taxonomic notes

"Ephedra torreyana is known to form hybrids with two other species of Ephedra as reported and described by Cutler (1939). The first of these is E. × intermixta Cutler, the hybrid between E. torreyana and E. trifurca. This hybrid occurs in a small area of southwestern New Mexico (near Engle, Sierra County) within the zone of sympatry of the two parental species; it may be fertile (mature seeds are formed). It is intermediate in most characters but can be identified by its combination of the spinelike terminal buds of E. trifurca and the scabrous, light yellow seeds of E. torreyana.

"The second hybrid is Ephedra × arenicola Cutler, the hybrid between E. torreyana and E. cutleri. This hybrid is known only from the type locality in extreme northeastern Arizona (near Dennehotso, Apache County) in an area of sympatry of the parental species. This hybrid is intermediate in most characters, but it can be distinguished by its combination of the setaceous leaves, viscid stems, and long-pedunculate seed cones of E. cutleri with the persistent, whorled leaves of E. torreyana" (Stevenson 1993).

Description

"Shrubs erect, 0.25-1 m. Bark gray, cracked and irregularly fissured. Branches alternate or whorled, rigid, angle of divergence about 45 . Twigs blue-green, becoming gray with age, glaucous, with numerous very fine longitudinal grooves; internodes 2-5 cm. Terminal buds conic, less than 4 mm. Leaves in whorls of 3, 2-5 mm, connate to 2/3 their length; bases becoming gray and shredded with age; apex acute. Pollen cones 1-4 at node, ovoid, 6-8 mm, sessile; bracts in 6-9 whorls of 3, cream to pale yellow, ovate, slightly clawed, 2-4 × 2-4 mm, membranous; bracteoles slightly exceeding bracts; sporangiophores 2-4 mm, exserted to 1/2 their length, with 5-8 sessile to short-stalked microsporangia. Seed cones 1-several at node, ovoid, 9-15 mm, sessile; bracts in 5 or 6 whorls of 3, obovate, 6-9 × 6-10 mm, papery, translucent with orange-yellow to greenish yellow center and base, base clawed, margins minutely dentate, undulate. Seeds 1-2(-3), ellipsoid, 7-10 × 1.5-3 mm, light brown to yellowish green, scabrous. ... Coning spring" (Stevenson 1993).

Distribution and Ecology

USA: Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico & Texas; Mexico: Chihuahua. Found on dry rocky to sandy areas at 500-2000 m (Stevenson 1993).

Big tree

Oldest

Ethnobotany

"From its dried stems, early pioneers brewed a hot drink, though the Navajo roasted the stems first, claiming that it improved the flavor" (Elmore and Janish 1976).

Observations

Remarks

"From its dried stems, early pioneers brewed a hot drink, though the Navajo roasted the stems first, claiming that it improved the flavor" (Elmore and Janish 1976).

Citations

Cutler, H.C. 1939. Monograph of the North American species of the genus Ephedra. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 26: 373-427.

See also

Last Modified 2012-11-23