The Gymnosperm Database


Line drawing; for full size image go to the Flora of China (Wu and Raven 1999).


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Conservation status

Abies holophylla

Maxim. 1866

Common names

Manchurian fir (Silba 1986).

Taxonomic notes


"A narrowly conical tree 25-40 m. tall, 1.2-5 m. in girth, with horizontal branches. Bark scaly, gray or grayish-brown, becoming shallowly fissured. Branchlets smooth, shiny gray-brown to yellowish-gray. Buds acuminate, pinkish-brown, free from the leaves, slightly resinous, 1.2-1.8 mm. in diameter. Leaves spreading at right angles upwards and outwards above, pectinate below, bright green above, glaucous-green or grayish below; stomata usually absent above or in 1-2 short lines near the apex, in 7-10 lines below; 2-4 cm. long by 2 mm. wide, cross-section elliptic, spine-tipped, base contorted. Male strobili pale yellow tinted pink. Female cone cylindrical, resinous, apex bluntly rounded and somewhat depressed, blue-yellow-green then bright yellow-brown-gray, 12-14 cm. long by 4-5 cm. wide; scales smooth, broadly rounded; bracts hidden, about 1/2 height of the scale. Seeds cuneiform, greenish-yellow with a long, nearly quadrangular wing" (Silba 1986).

Distribution and Ecology

Russia: Southern Ussuriland; China: Heilongjiang; N Korea; at 0-1500 m (Silba 1986, Cheng & Fu 1978, Vladimir Dinets e-mail, 1998.01.02). Hardy to Zone 5 (cold hardiness limit between -28.8°C and -23.3°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Big tree

Chedjudo Island, Korea (52 m tall, >300 cm dbh) (Vladimir Dinets e-mail 1998.01.02).







See also

Eckenwalder (2009).

Farjon, Aljos. 1990. Pinaceae: drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea. Königstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.
- Provides a detailed account, with illustrations.

Farjon (2010).

Vidakovic 1991.

Wu and Raven 1999.

Last Modified 2017-12-29