Trees to 15 m tall and 50 cm dbh, with a broadly conical crown. Bark gray, scaly, flaking. Branchlets pale yellow turning gray or yellow-gray in 2nd and 3rd years, finally gray or dark gray; stout, glabrous. Leaves spreading radially, curved and directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading and ascending on lower side, rhombic in cross section, 15-25×2 mm, with 4-7stomatal lines along each surface, apex acute. Seed cones green, maturing brown, ovoid-cylindric, 8-14 × 5-6.5 cm. Seed scales rhombic-ovate, 2.7 × 2.7-3 cm, apex broadly rounded or obtuse. Seeds obovoid, 5-6 × 3.5 mm, with a 10 mm wing. Pollination May, seed maturity September-October (Wu and Raven 1999).
China: S Gansu, SW Henan (Weixing Xian), W Hubei, S Shaanxi, NE Shanxi (Wutai Shan), Sichuan; at 1300-2000 m elevation (Wu and Raven 1999). Hardy to Zone 5 (cold hardiness limit between -28.8°C and -23.3°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).
"The species is very rare and scattered within its range in montane coniferous forest on the southern slopes of the Qinling Range. The forest has experienced large reductions in extent and the entire population has declined in numbers, especially at Neixiang. A good stand is apparently still found in Xinja Shan" (World Conservation Monitoring Centre - Trees).
Masters. 1903. Gardeners' Chronicle ser. 3. 33:116.
Last Modified 2012-11-28