The Gymnosperm Database


Tree in habitat (left, Pinus wallichiana on right), in Pakistan [Vladimir Dinets, 2004.10].

line drawing

Line drawing; for full size image go to the Flora of China (Wu and Raven 1999).

foliage photograph

New growth on a tree in the Seattle Arboretum [C.J. Earle, 2003.04.27].

bark photograph

Bark on a tree in the Seattle Arboretum [C.J. Earle].


Range of P. smithiana and several other widespread Asian spruces (redrawn from Vidakovic 1991).


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Conservation status

Picea smithiana

(Wallich) Boissier 1884

Common names

Rai (Silba 1986), 长叶云杉 changye yunshan [Chinese].

Taxonomic notes

Syn: P. morinda (Silba 1986).


Trees to 60 m tall and 200 cm dbh, with a conical crown of pendulous branchlets. Bark pale brown, breaking into irregular plates. Branchlets pale brown or pale gray, glabrous. Leaves spreading radially, directed obliquely forward, slender, curved, quadrangular in cross section, 33-55×1.3-1.8 mm, with 2-5 stomatal lines on each surface, apex acute or acuminate. Seed cones green, maturing brown, lustrous, cylindric, 10-18 × 4.5-5 cm. Seed scales broadly obovate, thick, ca. 3 × 2.4 cm, broadly triangular-obtuse. Seeds dark brown, ca. 5 mm, with a 10-15 mm wing (Wu and Raven 1999).

Distribution and Ecology

Afghanistan, India: Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan, S Tibet Wu and Raven (1999). Hardy to Zone 7 (cold hardiness limit between -17.7°C and -12.2°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Big tree

Vladimir Dinets (e-mail, 2004.11.14) reports trees in Pakistan up to 50 m tall.





Vladimir Dinets (e-mail, 2004.1.14) reports that Kalam, in Pakistan's Swat Valley, has a large forest of Cedrus deodara with some Picea smithiana and Pinus wallichiana. He also found it growing along the trail to Nanga Parbat Base Camp. "The trailhead is accessible from Gilgit by a hired jeep, or from Raikot Bridge on the Karakoram Highway by hitchhiking (early morning only). Near the trailhead are some Pinus gerardiana, Juniperus semiglobosa and Cupressus torulosa, higher up - Pinus wallichiana and Picea smithiana (slim, but up to 50 m tall)." See Dinets (2004) for further detail.



Boissier, E. 1884. Flora Orientalis 5:700.

Dinets, Vladimir. 2004. Ramadan in Pakistan., accessed 2004.11.28.

See also

Last Modified 2017-12-29