华山松 hua shan song [Chinese]; Chinese white pine.
Trees to 35m tall and 100 cm dbh. Conical in young trees with whorled branching, with age becoming rounded and irregularly branched. Bark smooth, brownish-gray, with age becoming platy and fissured, blackish brown to grayish red brown, covered by thin, loosely appressed small scales; outer bark about 8 mm thick, inner bark 8-l5 mm thick, pale reddish white, finely fibrous. Needles in fascicles of 5, the sheath soon deciduous; slender, 8-15 cm long, 1-1.5 mm thick, serrulate, bright green, triangular in cross section, with 1 vascular bundle and 3 resin ducts, one medial, two marginal. Pollen cones in spiral clusters at the base of new shoots, 1.5-2.5 cm long, greenish white with a reddish tip. Seed cones in 1's and 2's, erect becoming pendulous from stout 2-3 cm long peduncles, 8-14 cm long, conical-cylindric, often resinous, green maturing golden brown, falling after seeds have dispersed. Cone scales rigid, 3-4 x 2.5-3 cm, apophysis triangular or rhombic, thickened; umbo obtuse, darker than scale, without a prickle. Seed obovoid, 10-15 mm long, wingless (Liu 1970, Farjon 2010).
China: S Gansu, C and NW Guizhou, Hainan, SW Henan, W Hubei, S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan at 900-3,500 m; N and C Taiwan at altitudes of 2,300-3,000 m; N Myanmar; usually in mixed conifer forests with species of Abies, Picea, Pseudotsuga and (in SW China) Larix; often on thin, rocky soils (Liu 1970, Wu and Raven 1999, Farjon 2010). The trees in Taiwan are var. mastersiana; all others are var. armandii.
Hardy to Zone 7 (cold hardiness limit between -17.7°C and -12.2°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).
Franchet, A.R. 1884. Plantae davidianae ex sinarum imperio. Part I. Plantes de Mongolie du nord et du centre de la Chine. Coniferae. T. VII, pp. 285-293, pl. 12-14. Paris.
Last Modified 2012-11-27