The Gymnosperm Database


Tree in habitat [Jose Angel Campos Sandoval 2008.05].


Bark on a tree in habitat [Jose Angel Campos Sandoval 2008.05].


High-resolution distribution maps at the Euforgen website.


Foliar units with maturing pollen cones and seed cones, and opened cones from prior years; ornamental tree in San Diego, California [C.J. Earle 2012.01.28].


Same tree, detail of cones [C.J. Earle 2012.01.28].


Same tree, view up through crown showing pale, flaky bark and retention of prior years' cone crops [C.J. Earle 2012.01.28].


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Conservation status

Pinus halepensis

Miller 1768

Common names

Aleppo pine; الصنوبر الحلبي [Arabic]; Pin d'Alep [French]; pino d'Aleppo [Italian]; Alepski bor [Croation]; Halep çamı [Turkish]; אורן ירושלים [Hebrew]; pino carrasco [Spanish]. Aleppo is in Syria, where the species was first described.

Taxonomic notes

Synonymy (Farjon 1998):


Trees 15–25 m tall and up to 150 cm DBH. Single round trunk, often divided to form in mature trees a rounded or flat-topped crown of slender, irregular horizontal, upturned branches; crown form often shaped by wind, especially near the sea. Bark at first smooth silvery gray, later becomings purple-brown, longitudinally grooved and fissured into scaly plates. Branchlets smooth, slightly ridged, gray-green. Winter buds conic, 8 mm long, the scales fringed and often reflexed. Needles in fascicles of 2(–3), 5–12 cm × 1 mm, twisted, edges minutely serrate, with stomata on all surfaces; rather sparsely arrayed along the branchlets. Fascicle sheath persistent but fragile. Seed cones on thick, scaly peduncles; at maturity ovoid, pendant, 6–12 × 4–7 cm, symmetrical, red- to purple-brown, solitary or in whorls of 2–3. Cones take 3 years to mature and remain on branches for long thereafter. Cone scales shiny, yellow- or red-brown, about 2.5 × 1.5 cm, apophysis rhomboid, flat or slightly raised and keeled, without a prickle. Seed 5-6 mm long with a 2.5 cm wing (Dallimore et al. 1967, Farjon 1984).

Distribution and Ecology

Mediterreanean and W Asia: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Malta, France, and Spain. In South Africa, where it is cultivated for shelter poles and firewood, it has naturalized and invaded grassland and fynbos, particularly on dry soils, and become widespread in the Eastern Cape and the Western Cape (Palgrave 2002). It is also locally naturalized in USA: California (PLANTS database 2009.03.31). Hardy to Zone 8 (cold hardiness limit between -12.1°C and -6.7°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Big tree

I have no data on wild trees. A specimen in Arderne Gardens, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa was measured at 172 cm dbh and 32.0 m tall (Robert Van Pelt pers. comm., 2003.11.24).



Pioneering work was carried out by Gindel (1944). Further work can be located at the Bibliography of Dendrochronology.


In the eastern Mediterranean, Pinus halepensis forests are important for resin, fuelwood and forest honey production and also for livestock grazing. "Resin collection activities in Mediterranean countries had always played a significant role in the welfare of forest communities, some of which lived marginally at the edge of subsistence. In some low-income areas, resin collection was (and continue to be) the only reliable source of labor. In addition, many of the resin producing forests are community forests and production benefits go to resin community co-operatives. Another important aspect of these forests is that multiple purpose forestry is applied and other activities other than resin collection co-exist, such as apiculture... Income from the wood of a Pinus halepensis tree, for example, is only 2% of the income generated from resin throughout the lifetime of the tree (an average size tree can produce 3–4 kilograms of resin per year). Moreover, it has been observed that forests that have active resin production have lower incidence of forest fires. This results from the fact that adjacent communities have an active interest in preserving the integrity of the forest ecosystems" (Moussouris and Regato 1999).




Gindel, J. 1944. Aleppo pine as a medium for tree-ring analysis. Tree-Ring Bulletin 11(1):6-8. Available online at (accessed 2006.06.05).

Miller, P. 1768. The Gardener's Dictionary, ed. 8. London. Pinus no. 8. Available:, accessed 2011.05.20.

See also

Last Modified 2017-12-29