The Gymnosperm Database

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Pinus morrisonicola Hayata (Li 1975).

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Line drawing from the Flora of China (Wu and Raven 1999).


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Conservation status

Pinus morrisonicola

Hayata 1908

Common names

台湾五针松 Taiwan wuzhensong [Chinese]; Taiwan white pine, Taiwan shortleaf pine.

Taxonomic notes

Syn: P. formosana Hayata 1908; P. uyematsui Hayata 1913; P. parviflora sensu Matsum. & Hayata 1906 non Sieb. & Zucc.; P. parviflora Sieb. & Zucc. var. morrisonicola (Hayata) Wu 1956 (Li 1975).


"A large tree, up to 15-25 m high and 120 cm in diameter, the trunk often crooked. ... Leaves 5 in a fascicle, 8 cm long, triangular in cross section, with 2 resin ducts. Mature cones ovoid to oblong-ovoid, up to 10 cm long, 4-5 cm in diameter; cone scales oblong-ovoid, the apex rounded. Seeds winged, about 2 cm long including the wing" (Li 1975).
"Trunk bark grayish brown to blackish brown, irregularly shallowly fissured or shallowly cracked, scaly, scales with tiered layers (the bark of young stems grayish brown, smooth); lenticels inconspicuous; outer bark about 6 mm. thick, hard and brittle, lignified corky, with a tiered, red brown cross section; newly formed periderm almost inconspicuous, milky white; inner bark 0.5-1.5 cm. thick, pale reddish white, finely fibrous, gradually becoming pale yellowish brown and gumming colorless transparent resin after cutting; cambium and newly formed phloem almost inconspicuous, white. Freshly cut sapwood pale yellowish white, wood rays inconspicuous, resinous" (Liu 1970).

Distribution and Ecology

Taiwan, "[a]t altitudes of 300-2,300 meters throughout the island, usually scattered and in association with broad-leaved trees, now scarce at lower elevations and mostly present at higher elevations and less accessible places" (Li 1975). Hardy to Zone 8 (cold hardiness limit between -12.1°C and -6.7°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Big tree





Some detailed location data from Taiwan (HAST Database) follows:

Hualien Xian: Xiulin Xiang: Taroko National Park, Chingshuishan. At Peak of Chingshuishan, a metamorphosed limestone mountain. Elevation:2200-2400 m. 121:38:21E, 24:14:41N. A tree ca. 4-5 m tall, common.

Nantou Xian: Jenai Xiang: National Chung Xing University Hui-Sun Experimental Forest. Along the forest road to Tang- kungpei; mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest. Elevation: 600-800 m. 121°2'17"E, 24°5'20"N. On exposed stone wall by forest road. Small tree ca. 2.5 m tall; DBH ca. 3 cm; immature fruits green.

Taitung Xian: Haitung District between Xiangyang and Liyuan. Elevation: 1900 m.



Hayata, B. 1908. New Conifers from Formosa. Gardeners' Chronicle ser. 3, 43:194. Available: Google Books, accessed 2012.10.29. I believe this is the first description Hayata published, but I have also seen the following publication cited.

Hayata, B. 1908. Flora Montana Formosae - Gymnospermae. J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25, Art. 19:207-224, figs. (p. 217).

See also

The species account at Threatened Conifers of the World.

Huang 1994 (the Flora of Taiwan).

Last Modified 2017-12-29