Line drawing from the Flora of China (Wu and Raven 1999).
Link to photos of trees in habitat (2006.09.18).
Кедровый стланик (kedrovy stlanik, creeping cedar) [Russian]; Сибирийн давжаа нарс [Mongol]; ハイマツ [Japanese]; 偃松 [Chinese]; 눈잣나무 [Korean]; Japanese stone pine, Siberian dwarf pine.
Syn: Pinus cembra Linnaeus var. pumila Pallas 1784; P. cembra var. pygmaea Loudon (Wu and Raven 1999).
"Shrubs to 6 m tall, usually with creeping branches to 10 m; bark gray-brown, flaking; branchlets initially brown, dark red-brown in 2nd or 3rd year, densely pubescent; winter buds red-brown, conical-ovoid, slightly resinous. Needles 5 per bundle, trapeziform in cross section, 4-6(-8.3) cm × ca. 1 mm, stiff, vascular bundle 1, resin canals (1 or)2, marginal, base with sheath shed. Seed cones erect, maturing to pale purple- or red-brown, conical-ovoid or ovoid, 3-4.5 × 2.5-3 cm, indehiscent or imperfectly dehiscent at maturity. Seed scales broadly subrhombic or rhombic-obovate; apophyses broadly triangular, thick, swollen, margin slightly recurved; umbo purple-black, distinct, ending in a slightly recurved protuberance. Seeds dark brown, triangular-obovoid, 7-10 × 5-7 mm, wingless, abaxial margin ridged" (Wu and Raven 1999).
Japan, N Korea, N Mongolia, Siberia E from Yenisey River, China: Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol (at 1000-2300 m elevation) (Wu and Raven 1999). "Introduced to Hibiny Mts. of Kolsky Peninsula. Forms broad belt just above timberline, pure or (on E coast) with alders or willows. In E and NE parts of its area and in cold intermontane valleys descends to sea level" (Vladimir Dinets e-mail 1998.01.10). Hardy to Zone 1 (cold hardiness limit below -45.6°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001, variety not specified), which makes it one of the most cold-hardy trees known.
Subarctic Dwarf Pine Thickets (2006.09.18) has a good map showing a most of P. pumila's Siberian distribution (also has some good photos).
Although it never gets very tall, V. Dinets reports specimens with a crown up to 25-30 m in diameter, in Chara Valley, Transbaikalia (Vladimir Dinets e-mail 1998.01.10).
The blister rust Peridermium kurilense, a close relative of Cronartium ribicola, afflicts P. pumila in its native habitat (Colley and Taylor 1927).
Colley, R. H. and M. W. Taylor. 1927. Peridermium kurilense Diet. on Pinus pumila Pall., and Peridermium indicum N.Sp. on Pinus excelsa Wall. Journal of Agricultural Research 34(4):327-330. Available online at http://preserve.nal.usda.gov:8300/jag/v34/v34i4/340327/a340327.htm (2004.01.06).
Regel, E. A. Von. 1859. Index Semina Hortus Petropolitanus 1858. St. Petersburg (p. 23).
Geobotanica Pacifica: Vegetation of the Russian Far East, accessed 2010.03.30.
Khomentovsky, Peter A. 2003. Ecology of Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel in Kamchatka. Science Publishers, Incorporated. ISBN 1578081890. Available for purchase at Amazon.com (2004.01.06).
Tikhomirov, B.A. 1949. Pinus pumila thickets: their biology and use. Moscow. ABS: A treatise on the biology, ecology and distrubution of Pinus pumila woodlands in the former Soviet Union [in Russian].
Yanagimachi, O. and H. Ohmori. 1991. Ecological status of Pinus pumila scrub and the lower boundary of the Japanese alpine zone. Arctic and Alpine Research 23:424-435.
Last Modified 2012-11-28