Pond pine (Kral 1993), marsh pine, pocosin pine.
Syn: Pinus rigida Miller subsp. serotina (Michaux) R.T. Clausen; P. rigida var. serotina (Michaux) Hoopes (Kral 1993).
Trees to 21 m tall and 60 cm dbh, "straight or more often crooked, commonly with adventitious sprouts; crown becoming ragged, thin, often broadly rounded or flat. Bark red-brown, irregularly furrowed and cross-checked into rectangular, flat, scaly plates. Branches spreading to ascending; twigs stout, orange- to yellow-orange, frequently glaucous, aging darker. Buds ovoid to narrowly ovoid, red-brown, 1-1.5(2) cm, resinous. Leaves 3 per fascicle (to 5 in adventitious or disturbed growth), spreading to ascending, persisting 2-3 years, (12)15-20(21) cm × 1.3-1.5(2) mm, slightly twisted, tufted at twig tips, straight, yellow-green, all surfaces with fine stomatal lines, margins serrulate, apex acuminate; sheath 1-2 cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, to 30 mm, yellow-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, in some populations beginning to shed seeds then but more often variably serotinous, long-persistent, often whorled, symmetric, ovoid to lanceoloid before opening, broadly ovoid to nearly globose when open, 5-8 cm, pale red-brown to creamy brown, sessile or on stalks to 1cm, scales with dark red-brown border on adaxial surface distally; apophyses slightly thickened, low, rhombic, low cross-keeled; umbo central, low-conic, with short, weak prickle, sometimes unarmed. Seeds ellipsoid, oblique at tip, somewhat compressed; body 5-6 mm, pale brown, mottled darker or nearly black; wing to 20mm. 2n=24" (Kral 1993).
USA: New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida & Alabama at 0-200 m elevation in flatwoods, flatwoods bogs, savannas, and barrens (Kral 1993). Hardy to Zone 8 (cold hardiness limit between -12.1°C and -6.7°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001). See also Thompson et al. (1999).
Diameter 104 cm, height 27 m, crown spread 16 m, located in Thomas County, GA (American Forests 1996).
Personally, I have seen it in the Weymouth Woods Sandhills Nature Preserve in North Carolina, and in the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Both areas provide a chance to study the species in a relatively pristine ecosystem, but neither area provides truly exceptional stands of P. serotina.
P. serotina is fire successional and sprouts adventitiously after crown fires. It is part of a distinct forest type including Taxodium distichum, Nyssa biflora, Magnolia virginiana, Persea sp., and Ilex sp. (Kral 1993).
American Forests 1996. The 1996-1997 National Register of Big Trees. Washington, DC: American Forests. This is a dated citation; the big tree register is now available online.
Michaux, A. 1803. Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 205. Available: www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7567, accessed 2011.05.21
The FEIS database.
Last Modified 2017-12-29