The Gymnosperm Database


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Conservation status 2010: protocol 2.3, needs updating

Nageia wallichiana

(Presl.) O. Kuntze 1891

Common names

Malaya: podo kebal musang gunong; Sumatra: kayu bulu soma (Asahan, Batak), labu rimba (Sibolga), lanang (Pasamah, Palembang), medang sepaling (Bencoolen), setebal (Banjumasin, Palembang), sibulu somak (Simelungun); W. Java: ki bima, ki putri; Borneo: kebal musang (Tawau), manggilan (Tambunan, Dusun), mengilan (in Sabah, Serudong), salung puteh (on the Merurong Plateau); Philippines: mala almaciga (Tagalog); Celebes: molosambongé=tomblilato (Buladu in N Cel.), tandangguli (Malili); Lesser Sunda Islands: tilu tuna (Flores); Moluccas: damar laki laki (Obi); W New Guinea: augom(m)a (Wariki, Manikiong), bararang (Meos Num, Pom), kabeirefo (Tiwara, Irahutu), mangurif (Biak), mejerka (Sidai, Arfak Sidai), misorvira (Tairi, Borowai), mop (Mandobo), mungkas (Beriat, Tehid), neusuwierie (Esania), nibwau (Andjai, in Kebar Valley), nipa (Kebar), niwob (Kebar), manakasap (Japen, Sambar), nidjet (Sidal, Amberbaken), orsonkobu (Warsamson, Mooi), waramira (Mimika), wok (Nluju); East New Guinea: durwe (Wagu), mewango, mewongo (Maipa village, Mekeo), ososo biri biri (Oomsis), waswayangumi (Waskuk) (de Laubenfels 1988).

Taxonomic notes

Syn: Podocarpus latifolius (non Thunb. 1794) Blume 1827; Podocarpus wallichianus Presl 1844; Podocarpus blumei Endl. 1847; Podocarpus agathifolia Blume 1849; Nageia blumei (Endl.) Gordon 1858; Podocarpus latifolia f. ternatensis de Boer 1866; Decussocarpus wallichianus (Presl) de Laub. 1969 (de Laubenfels 1988).


"Tree, 10-54 m high, 7-60 cm diam., clear bole to 30 m. Leaves quite variable both on juvenile and adult plants with the larger leaves growing in the shade, 6-14(-23) by 2-5(-9) cm, 2 to at least 6 times as long as broad; petiole 5-10 mm. Pollen cones in groups of up to at least 7 on a 2-10 mm peduncle; mature cone 8-18 by 3-4 mm. Apex of the microsporophyll lanceolate, 2-3 mm long. Seed-bearing structure solitary on a 8 to at least 20 mm peduncle with caducous scales or occasionally reduced leaves. Receptacle with 4-7 sterile, deflexed, slightly enlarged bracts, 7-18 mm long before becoming ripe and fleshy, dark purple or black when ripe. Seed with its covering 15-18 mm diam." (de Laubenfels 1988).

Distribution and Ecology

India (S extremity of the Deccan Peninsula), Assam; Burma; Thailand; Indochina; China: Yunnan; Malesia: Sumatra, Malaya, Banka I., W Java, Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores), Borneo (incl. Karimata I.), Philippines (Luzon, Sibuyan, Mindoro, Panay, Samar), N & C Celebes, Moluccas (Obi, Ternate, Morotai, Ceram); New Guinea (incl. Meos Num, Biak, Japen, and Normanby Is.), at widely varying elevations from sea level to 2100 m (de Laubenfels 1988). Based on data from 64 collection localities, its climate preferences include a mean annual temperature of 24.7°C, with an average minimum in the coldest month of 19°C, and a mean annual precipitation of 2711 mm (Biffin et al. 2011, Table S5). Hardy to Zone 9 (cold hardiness limit between -6.6°C and -1.1°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

"Scattered and often common in primary rain-forests, nowhere reported gregarious or dominant" (de Laubenfels 1988).

Big tree




"The tree yields a good timber. In Obi planks are used for house construction. In the Fly River area it is used for smaller canoe logs" (de Laubenfels 1988).



Listed (as Podocarpus wallichianus) as threatened in Vietnam by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

"Collected in peat-swamps in Sumatra and Borneo, or dry parts of them, in the lowland, in Sarawak on basalt ridges and submontane kerangas, in E. Borneo (G. Beratus) in mossy forest on sandstone, in Sabah in sandy pelawan (Tristania) forest, in New Guinea on clay or sandy ridge forest, sometimes associated at submontane altitude with Anisoptera, Cinnamomum, Sloanea, Castanopsis, or with Araucaria-Podocarpus-Fagaceae at 700 m. In Thailand buttresses are recorded, at Arguni Bay (New Guinea) even high buttresses; this seems to occur occasionally" (de Laubenfels 1988).


See also

Hiep et al. 2004.

Luu and Thomas 2004 provide a description, range map, conservation status, drawings and photos, and a wealth of additional information.

Last Modified 2017-12-29