The Gymnosperm Database

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Drawing (Li 1975).


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Conservation status 2010: protocol 2.3, needs updating

Podocarpus costalis

C. Presl 1849

Common names

Taxonomic notes

Syn: Nageia costalis (C. Presl) Kuntze 1891 (Farjon 1998); P. polystachyus (not R.Br.) Li et Keng (de Laubenfels 1988).


"Small tree c. 1-5 m high, possibly higher. Foliage buds 2-4 mm long, primary scales erect. Juvenile leaves up to at least 9 by 1.3 cm, acute or more or less rounded at the apex. Adult leaves linear, 4-7 cm (or as little as 2.5 cm on short side branches) by 5-10 mm, broadly acute or more usually rounded at the apex, sometimes with a small blunt apiculus, narrowing more or less abruptly at the base to a 2-3 mm petiole, slightly revolute; midrib above a distinct ridge 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 mm high. Seed-bearing structure on a 4-6 mm peduncle; foliola c. 1.5 mm long and early caducous; receptacle 12-15 mm long, reported to be red when mature. Seed with its covering 9-10 (including a small crest) by 6-7 mm. ... [O]ften confused with P. polystachyus because of a similar habitat and similar sized leaves. The leaves of P. costalis are slightly revolute while those of P. polystachyus are not" (de Laubenfels 1988).

Distribution and Ecology

Philippines: N Luzon, Bucas, and other islands between Luzon and Taiwan; Taiwan: Orchid Island. Found on coastal bluffs from sea level to at least 300 m elevation (de Laubenfels 1988). Based on data from 11 collection localities, its climate preferences include a mean annual temperature of 24.4°C, with an average minimum in the coldest month of 16.5°C, and a mean annual precipitation of 2383 mm (Biffin et al. 2011, Table S5).

The IUCN reports that this taxon is facing a very high near-term risk of extinction in the wild due to ongoing loss of habitat.

Big tree




Widely cultivated in the Philippines (de Laubenfels 1988).




Presl. 1849. Epim. Bot. 236.

See also

The species account at Threatened Conifers of the World.

Foxworthy (1911).

Gaussen (1976), p. 191.

Gray (1958).

Huang 1994 (the Flora of Taiwan).

Li. 1963. Woody Fl. Taiwan 41, f. 5.

Li and Keng. 1954. Taiwania 5:34, t. 5.

Pilger. 1903. Pfl. R. IV, 5, Heft 18:78.

Last Modified 2017-12-29