Gymnosperm Database
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Berries on an ornamental tree in Seattle, Washington [R. Van Pelt, 2005].


Bark on a 20 cm diameter tree in the Los Angeles Arboretum [C.J. Earle, 2009.12.06].


Foliage on a tree in the Los Angeles Arboretum [C.J. Earle, 2009.12.06].


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Conservation status 2010: protocol 2.3, needs updating

Podocarpus macrophyllus

(Thunb.) D. Don 1824

Common names

Southern yew, yew podocarp, long-leaved podocarp, Buddhist pine; クサマキ kusamaki, 犬槇 inumaki [Japanese]; 羅漢松 luo han song [Chinese].

Taxonomic notes

Syn: Podocarpus forrestii (Silba 1986). One variety, maki Sieb. & Zucc. (syn: Podocarpus chinensis).


"Evergreen trees. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged, narrowly lanceolate or broad-linear, acute at both ends, midribs distinct, margins entire and slightly recurved, 8-12 cm. long, 7-12 cm. broad. Dioecious; staminate catkins cone-like, about 3 cm. long, axillary, anthers globose, 2-locular; pistillate flower solitary, axillary. Fruits globose, about 1 cm. long, green or purplish, with fleshy receptacle purplish. Trunk bark grayish red brown, exfoliating in shaggy, long flakes; lenticels inconspicuous; outer barks about 4 mm. thick, fibrous, with a cross-section of brown color; inner barks about 3-5 mm. thick, pink, finely fibrous; cambium and newly formed phloem conspicuous, colorless, somewhat transparent. Freshly cut sapwood pale apricot yellow, wood rays inconspicuous" (Liu 1970).

Var. maki is a tree to 15 m. Branches strong and horizontal; branchlets dense. Leaves are spirally arranged, up to 18×1 cm, bright green above, glaucous beneath, thick, leathery (Exeter University).

Distribution and Ecology

S Japan, SW China, Liukui Island (Liu 1970, Silba 1986). Variety maki occurs in Burma, China, Taiwan, Japan (Silba 1986).

Based on data from 52 collection localities, it grows at elevations of 310 ±440 m. Within its range, mean annual temperature is 18.4°C, with an average minimum in the coldest month of 7.1°C, and a mean annual precipitation of 2180 mm (Biffin et al. 2011, Table S5). This is the most northernmost of all species of Podocarpus, hardy to Zone 7 (cold hardiness limit between -17.7°C and -12.2°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Var. maki, a collection record: "Locality: Hualien Xian: Fuli Hsiang: Fuli, en route from a rocky camping site to peak of Fenshuilunshan. Coastal Range. 121:18:37E, 23:10:37N. Elevation:760-1367 m. Virgin broadleaf forest dominated by over 20 meters tall trees of Lauraceae and Fagaceae. On semishady forest trail. Tree ca. 3.5 m tall" (HAST Database).

Big tree




Fairly widely planted as an ornamental in warm-temperate and subtropical areas.



This is the state tree of Chiba Prefecture, Japan.


Exeter University website, formerly at, accessed 1998, now defunct.

See also

Huang 1994 (the Flora of Taiwan).

Last Modified 2013-03-29