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Berries on an ornamental tree in Seattle, Washington [R. Van Pelt, 2005].

photograph

Bark on a 20 cm diameter tree in the Los Angeles Arboretum [C.J. Earle, 2009.12.06].

photograph

Foliage on a tree in the Los Angeles Arboretum [C.J. Earle, 2009.12.06].

 

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Conservation status 2010: protocol 2.3, needs updating

Podocarpus macrophyllus

(Thunb.) D. Don 1824

Common names

Southern yew, yew podocarp, long-leaved podocarp, Buddhist pine; クサマキ kusamaki, 犬槇 inumaki [Japanese]; 羅漢松 luo han song [Chinese].

Taxonomic notes

Syn: Podocarpus forrestii (Silba 1986). One variety, maki Sieb. & Zucc. (syn: Podocarpus chinensis).

Description

"Evergreen trees. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged, narrowly lanceolate or broad-linear, acute at both ends, midribs distinct, margins entire and slightly recurved, 8-12 cm. long, 7-12 cm. broad. Dioecious; staminate catkins cone-like, about 3 cm. long, axillary, anthers globose, 2-locular; pistillate flower solitary, axillary. Fruits globose, about 1 cm. long, green or purplish, with fleshy receptacle purplish. Trunk bark grayish red brown, exfoliating in shaggy, long flakes; lenticels inconspicuous; outer barks about 4 mm. thick, fibrous, with a cross-section of brown color; inner barks about 3-5 mm. thick, pink, finely fibrous; cambium and newly formed phloem conspicuous, colorless, somewhat transparent. Freshly cut sapwood pale apricot yellow, wood rays inconspicuous" (Liu 1970).

Var. maki is a tree to 15 m. Branches strong and horizontal; branchlets dense. Leaves are spirally arranged, up to 18×1 cm, bright green above, glaucous beneath, thick, leathery (Exeter University).

Distribution and Ecology

S Japan, SW China, Liukui Island (Liu 1970, Silba 1986). Variety maki occurs in Burma, China, Taiwan, Japan (Silba 1986).

Based on data from 52 collection localities, it grows at elevations of 310 ±440 m. Within its range, mean annual temperature is 18.4°C, with an average minimum in the coldest month of 7.1°C, and a mean annual precipitation of 2180 mm (Biffin et al. 2011, Table S5). This is the most northernmost of all species of Podocarpus, hardy to Zone 7 (cold hardiness limit between -17.7°C and -12.2°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Var. maki, a collection record: "Locality: Hualien Xian: Fuli Hsiang: Fuli, en route from a rocky camping site to peak of Fenshuilunshan. Coastal Range. 121:18:37E, 23:10:37N. Elevation:760-1367 m. Virgin broadleaf forest dominated by over 20 meters tall trees of Lauraceae and Fagaceae. On semishady forest trail. Tree ca. 3.5 m tall" (HAST Database).

Big tree

Oldest

Dendrochronology

Ethnobotany

Fairly widely planted as an ornamental in warm-temperate and subtropical areas.

Observations

Remarks

This is the state tree of Chiba Prefecture, Japan.

Citations

Exeter University website, formerly at http://info.ex.ac.uk/public_html/UNIVERSITY_PUBLICATIONS/TOUR/conifers/Podocarpus.html, accessed 1998, now defunct.

See also

Huang 1994 (the Flora of Taiwan).

Last Modified 2013-03-29