The Gymnosperm Database


P. andina at a preserve in Temuco, Parque Nacional Conguillìo, Chile [Rick Fencl, 2006.03].


Seed and covering from a tree at a preserve in Temuco, Parque Nacional Conguillìo, Chile [Rick Fencl, 2006.03].


Foliage from a tree at a preserve in Temuco, Parque Nacional Conguillìo, Chile [Rick Fencl, 2006.03].

Several good photos are available on the Encyclopedia de la Flora Chilena website and at the Chilebosque website.


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Conservation status

Prumnopitys andina

(Poepp. ex Endl.) de Laubenfels 1978

Common names

Lleuque [Mapudungun] (Mill and Quinn 2001).

Taxonomic notes

Synonymy (Farjon 1998, Mill and Quinn 2001):


Trees to 15 m tall and 100 cm dbh, crown pyramidal to globose, leaves linear, falcate, coriaceous, 1-2.5 cm long and 1.5-2 mm wide, with a glaucous strip on either side of the midrib on abaxial surface. Fruit the usual podocarp "berry", 10-15 mm diameter.

Trees to 21 m tall and 100 cm dbh; crown first conical, later rounded or irregular, with short, ascending branches. Bark thin, dark brown weathering light gray. Leaves in two ranks, angled forward, slightly curved, 15-25 mm×1.5-2.5 mm, base rounded with short petiole, midrib flat above and slightly raised below, apex pointed. Pollen cones in groups of 10-20, each attached on an axillary shoot 10-25 mm long, 5-8×2.5-3 mm. Seed cones 15-20×10-15 mm on a 2-3 cm peduncle, epimatium and seed green maturing deep red-purple. The relatively long leaves with a flat midrib and large seed distinguish it from other species of Prumnopitys (Eckenwalder 2009).

Distribution and Ecology

Argentina, Chile (Farjon 1998). Grows in low to mid-altitude Andean forests from Chile's Región del Maule (35°52'S) to Región de la Araucanía (39°30'S), at elevations of 200-1380 m in small populations of up to a few hundred individuals (Gonzalez 1998, Hechenleitner et al. 2005). Based on data from 24 collection localities, its climate preferences include a mean annual temperature of 9°C, with an average minimum in the coldest month of 0°C, and a mean annual precipitation of 1670 mm (Biffin et al. 2011, Table S5). Hardy to Zone 8 (cold hardiness limit between -12.1°C and -6.7°C) (Bannister and Neuner 2001).

Actively being exploited, primarily for the woodchip industry; also threatened by fires and deforestation (Hechenleitner et al. 2005).

Big tree







González, M. 1998. Prumnopitys andina. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed 2006.10.29.

Hechenleitner, P., M.F. Gardner, P.I. Thomas, C. Echeverria, B. Escobar, P. Brownless and C. Martinez. Plantas Amenazadas del Centro-Sur de Chile: Distribución, Conservación y Propagación. Available: (accessed 2006.10.29). The principal information on Prumnopitys andina is reproduced as a web page at

Mill, R.R. and C.J. Quinn. 2001. Prumnopitys andina reinstated as the correct name for "lleuque", the Chilean conifer recently renamed p. spicata (Podocarpaceae). Taxon 50(4):1143-1154.

See also

Encyclopedia de la Flora Chilena: Accessed 2006.10.29.

The species account at Threatened Conifers of the World.

Molloy, B. P. J. and M. Muñoz-Schick. 1999. The correct name for the Chilean conifer Lleuque (Podocarpaceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 189-193.

Last Modified 2017-12-29