Neuenschwander, Leon F.; Byler, James W.; Harvey, Alan E.; McDonald, Geral I.; Ortiz, Denise S.; Osborne, Harold L.; Snyder, Gerry C.; Zack, Arthur. 1999. White pine in the American West: a vanishing species-can we save it? Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-35. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 20 p. Available: (4.5 MB file).

ABSTRACT: Forest scientists ask that everyone, from the home gardener to the forest manager, help revive western white pine by planting it everywhere, even in nonforest environments such as our neighborhood streets, parks, and backyards. White pine, long ago considered the "King Pine," once dominated the moist inland forests of the Northwest, eventually spawning whole industries and historical movements. Now-since the arrival of Euro-Americans and the stubborn blister rust disease-this sun-loving giant barely survives on about 5 percent of its former domain. This is the story of the decline of the magnificent western white pine.