Syring, John, Ann Willyard, Richard Cronn and Aaron Liston. 2005. Evolutionary relationships among Pinus (Pinaceae) subsections inferred from multiple low-copy nuclear loci. American Journal of Botany 92: 2086-2100.

Abstract: Sequence data from nrITS and cpDNA have failed to fully resolve phylogenetic relationships among Pinus species. Four low-copy nuclear genes, developed from the screening of 73 mapped conifer anchor loci, were sequenced from 12 species representing all subsections. Individual loci do not uniformly support either the nrITS or cpDNA hypotheses and in some cases produce unique topologies. Combined analysis of low-copy nuclear loci produces a well-supported subsectional topology of two subgenera, each divided into two sections, congruent with prior hypotheses of deep divergence in Pinus. The placements of P. nelsonii, P. krempfii, and P. contorta have been of continued systematic interest. Results strongly support the placement of P. nelsonii as sister to the remaining members of sect. Parrya, suggest a moderately well-supported and consistent position of P. krempfii as sister to the remaining members of sect. Quinquefoliae, and are ambiguous about the placement of P. contorta. A successful phylogenetic strategy in Pinus will require many low-copy nuclear loci that include a high proportion of silent sites and derive from independent linkage groups. The locus screening and evaluation strategy presented here can be broadly applied to facilitate the development of phylogenetic markers from the increasing number of available genomic resources.